Photographs by Dr. Panos Varvarigos

Anatomic disorders of farmed fish
some examples)

Head (face, jaws,
throat, opercula)



Fins (caudal, dorsal)

Dysplasia of the caudal fin.

Scissors-like tail.


Aplasia of the dorsal fin.



Characteristic head-up swimming behaviour of a sea bream grower with lordosis (V shaped spine at the thoracic region).

Cyphosis and scoliosis.

Lordosis towards the tail.

Externally invisible lordosis of the anterior part of the spine.

Shortened discus-like body of a sea bream grower due to fusion of the vertebrae (see skeleton on right photo).

Part of the skeleton of the sea bream suffering from fusion of the vertebrae, mainly at the thoracic region.

Light microscopic observation (x25) of the lordotic spine, towards the tail, of a 57 days old sea bream juvenile with evidence of inflammation.


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Author: Dr. Panos Varvarigos
Freelance Veterinarian - Fish Pathologist, Athens, Greece.


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Every effort has been made to ensure that the information is accurate until the date of last editing. It is based upon the accumulated personal experience of applied veterinary work. The author cannot take responsibility for incorrect interpretation or any resulting consequences. The contents may be used as an educational guide and are definitely not meant to become a stand-alone diagnostic tool or operations manual.


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