Photographs by Dr. Panos Varvarigos ©

Fish Disease Diagnosis and Control in the Mediterranean Marine Aquaculture
Lecture notes by Dr. Panos Varvarigos presented at the advanced course for professionals organised by CIHEAM-IAMZ, University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain (13-24 September 2004).


Man-made diseases and disorders: "Winter Syndrome" of sea bream.

External signs comprise swollen abdomens, skin discolouration and patchy degeneration as well as mild fin erosions. The moribund fish flap about on the surface belly up or on their sides.

Some of the internal lesions comprise pale liver with congested inflamed patches, swollen intestine overfilled with transparent fluid and swollen gall bladder. Extensive haemorrhage of the opercula mucosa and gill congestion, are also common.

Splenomegaly, edematous kidney and spleen and kidney cocciomatosis are frequently present. The cocciomata are sterile containing an amorphous mass.

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Author: Dr. Panos Varvarigos
Freelance Veterinarian - Fish Pathologist, Athens, Greece.


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Every effort has been made to ensure that the information is accurate until the date of last editing. It is based upon the accumulated personal experience of applied veterinary work. The author cannot take responsibility for incorrect interpretation or any resulting consequences. The contents may be used as an educational guide and are definitely not meant to become a stand-alone diagnostic tool or operations manual.


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