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Azamethiphos 50% w/w

ECTO - PARASITICIDE

Presentation:    A wettable powder containing 50% w/w azamethiphos for dilution in water and subsequent administration to fish by the bath technique.

Indications:    Salmosan is suitable for treatment and control of parasitic arthropod infestations of farmed fish. Isopod and copepod parasites, often called “lice” by the fish growers, attach themselves onto the skin, gills and buccal cavity of the fish.

Common sea lice genera comprise Lepeophtheirus, Ergasilus, Caligus, Lernanthropus, Gnathia, Anilocra, Emetha, Nerocila, Ceratothoa. Salmosan is successfully used on salmon (Salmo salar) as well as in the Mediterranean aquaculture of sea bream (Sparus auratus) and sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

Apart from lice, Salmosan has been proven effective against the common monogenetic trematode worms (flukes), which infest the fish gills. Most common among these flukes are Sparicotyle chrysophrii, Furnestinia/Lamellodiscus echeneis (found on sea bream) and Diplectanum aequans (found on sea bass).

Packaging: 5 x 20g sachets or 5 x 100g sachets in a box.

 

Sea bream buccal and gill cavity isopods (Ceratothoa oestroides).

Sea bass gills infested by the copepod (Lernanthropus Kroyeri).

Sparicotyle chrysophrii.

Diplectanum aequans.

Furnestinia echeneis.

 

Administration and dosage:

·      Sea cage preparatory work: The netting depth is reduced to about 2-3 metres and is enclosed in a tarpaulin. Depth reduction should be combined with the cage surface to give a suitable water volume to be treated with a given number of Salmosan sachets without overcrowding the fish.

Arrangements must be made to ensure continuous oxygen supply to the bathed fish throughout the treatment. Dissolved oxygen levels should be maintained above 7mg/l during treatment.

·      Salmosan should be dissolved in distilled water prior to administering this stock solution to the fish, as follows:

Depending on the cage dosing requirements, up to 100g Salmosan powder (5 x 20g sachets or 2 100g sachets) are dissolved in about 5 litres of distilled water 24 hours and no more than 48 hours in advance of fish treatment. The solution should be made into a labelled screw-topped polyethylene container.

 

 

Every sachet contains a water-soluble bag which is added to the water without opening.

 

The initial Salmosan stock solution is gently shaken for 5 minutes and then further diluted to a larger volume of sea water, which is then poured or pumped into the tarpaulin at multiple points, preferably at the oxygen diffuser points, in order to ensure even administration (bath technique).

·      Bath treatment duration: 30-45 minutes.

·      Salmosan dose: 0.2-0.6 g/m3 (0.2-0.6 ppm), which corresponds to 0.1-0.6mg azamethiphos per litre of water. In practice, one to three 20g sachets are required to treat 100m3 of cage volume.

The table that follows gives the quantity of Salmosan required to treat a given tarpaulin volume according to cage type and size:

 

INDICATIVE DOSAGE TABLE

 

 

Cage type/size

Surface
(m2)

Tarpaulin depth
(
m) *

Water volume (m3)

Salmosan
(g)

Sachets

7m x 7m square

49

2,0

100

20-60

1-3 x20g

40m perimeter

127

2,4

300

60-180

3-4 x20g + 1 x100g

60m perimeter

286

2,8

800

160-480

1-4 x20g + 1-4 x100g

80m perimeter

510

2,0

1000

200-600

2-6 x100g

90m perimeter

645

2,5

1600

320-960

1-3 x20g + 3-9 x100g

100m perimeter

796

2,5

2000

400-1200

4-12 x 100g

* Indicative tarpaulin depth in order to require a rounded number of Salmosan sachets.

 

To reduce handling stress, the fish should be suitably fasted and have empty guts. Dissolved oxygen and fish behaviour should be continuously monitored during the bath treatment. In case of adverse effects the tarpaulin is sunk or removed to allow immediate flushing with clean sea-water.

Subsequent to the 30-45 minute bath treatment, the tarpaulin is removed and the normal depth of the cage netting re-installed. Sea bass is greatly stressed when held in shallow nets for long.

Additional guidelines: Salmosan is not used prophylactically, but only therapeutically.

Lice control in caged fish is intended to minimise the presence of mature adult parasites, hence the fish carrying these forms (e.g. gravid female Ceratothoas) represent the prime targets for treatment. Bath treatments should be repeated during those seasons (spring, summer) when lice activity intensifies. Treatment strategy should result in reducing the re-infection rate among the fish with few, but suitably timed, baths.

Withdrawal period, contra indications:      The fish are suitable for human consumption at least 24 hours post bath treatment with Salmosan. The recommended dose should not be exceeded. There are no reports of incompatibilities with other pharmaceutical substances.

Precautions:       Only for veterinary use. To be administered under veterinary supervision.

Store away from children.

Operator warnings:    Salmosan contains the organophosphorus compound azamethiphos, which is highly dangerous if ingested. May cause sensitisation by inhalation and skin contact. Wear suitable protective clothing, face and eye protection and gloves. No smoking, eating or drinking prior to withdrawing from the work area and removing protective equipment and washing exposed skin areas. In case of eye or skin contact rinse with copious volumes of water and wash hands. Rinse application equipment and containers after use. Wash thoroughly all protective clothing, especially the insides of gloves. In case of ill-symptoms consider the case as an emergency and seek medical help presenting the product label to the doctor.

 

Environmental warnings     Salmosan is dangerous to fish and other aquatic organisms in the concentrated form. Do not contaminate ponds, streams or other water bodies with unused product or used packaging. Fast detoxification is achieved by diluting in large amounts of water, such as in the sea.

 

Storage:     To be stored up to 25ºC, in a dry place. The stock solution container should be closed securely, clearly labelled and the solution used within 2 days.

Legal category:     Salmosan is a prescription only medicine and may be supplied only on veterinary prescription.

 

USEFUL FORMULAE (ROUND CAGES)

Radius (R); Depth (H);

Diameter (D) = 2xR

Perimeter (C) = 2xΠxR = 6,28xR

Radius (R) = C/(2xΠ) = C/6,28

Surface (S) = ΠxR2 = 3,14xR2

Volume (V) = SxH = ΠxR2xH = 3,14xR2xH

ALWAYS ADHERE TO THE INSTRUCTIONS OF USE AND OPERATOR SAFETY

 

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Copyright © Dr Panos Varvarigos

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Disclaimer:

Every effort has been made to ensure that the information in the notes and papers contained and linked herein is accurate until the date of last editing. It is based upon the accumulated personal experience of applied work in the field. The author cannot take responsibility for incorrect interpretation and any resulting consequences.

The contents may be used only as an educational guide and are not meant to become a stand-alone diagnostic tool or treatment manual or replace professional assistance.

 

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