PRODUCTS AND SERVICES TO FISH

 

VETCARE
DIAGNOSTICS - VACCINES - DISINFECTANTS
- NUTRACEUTICALS - MEDICINES

ANTIMICROBIAL

AQUAHEALTH
VETERINARY SERVICES - FARM HYGIENE FISH VACCINATION - CONSULTANCY

 

Bronopol BP 50% w/v

 

 

WIDE SPECTRUM FUNGICIDE & BACTERICIDE

Presentation: Clear concentrated, slightly viscous, water soluble fluid containing Bronopol BP 50% w/v.

Recommended use: Pyceze is indicated for the treatment and control of fungal and bacterial infections in fertilized, incubated fish eggs as well as the reduction and control of such infections in farmed fish held in tanks or raceways (fresh as well as sea water). Addition of Pyceze in the live prey holding tanks (rotifers, Artemia nauplii) in marine hatcheries drastically reduces bacterial load.

Dosage and administration: It is administered by solution into the water holding farmed fish, fertilized fish eggs, or planktonic prey organisms.

Efficacy data indicates that the product must be correctly administered according to the following guidelines:

 

o   Treatment of salmonid eggs

o   Treatment of marine fish fertilized eggs. The example of cod (Gadus morhua) and haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) eggs   

o   Treatment of fish

o   Antibacterial control of live prey in marine hatcheries   

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TREATMENT OF SALMONID EGGS

 

·    It is recommended that the normal configuration of the incubation system is NOT changed whilst medicating with Pyceze.

·    Treat once daily at 50mg Bronopol/litre (1ml Pyceze/10 litres incubator water) for 30 minutes commencing 24 hours after fertilization.

·    The correct amount of product per volume of incubator should be measured and mixed with a small volume of incubator water prior to addition to the incubator.

·    Use the 100ml measuring cylinder (provided with the 1 litre pack) to measure out the correct amount of product. After use, rinse the measuring cylinder carefully and add the rinsing back into the incubator water.

·    Flow rates to the incubator must be such that a complete exchange of the incubator water is achieved in 30 minutes or less following the end of the treatment period.

·    It is essential that the fish eggs be exposed to a homogeneous concentration of Pyceze throughout the treatment period. This can be achieved by ensuring there is continual water movement in the incubator during the treatment period by following the recommendations below for either re-circulation or continuous addition depending on the choice of application.

·    It is important to maintain the flow rate in the incubator during the treatment period to that normally used on the farm to prevent any physical damage to the sensitive eggs.

·    The equations below calculate the amount of product required, depending on the choice of application (re-circulation or continuous addition). The treatment time may appear longer than 30 minutes - this is to allow time for the product to disperse so that each egg receives the correct dose for the correct time.

·       It is advised that dead eggs are removed on a regular basis to avoid these becoming a source of further fungal infection.

 

 1. Re-circulation:  (Dose = 1ml per 10 litres water = 50mg Bronopol/litre)

The total treatment dose is added to the system over the time it takes for the water to circulate once through the system (Administration Time), in order to achieve proper mixing. Circulation of the medicated water is then continued for the Treatment Time of at least 30 minutes.

 

Administration Time (mins) = Incubator and pipework volume (litres)

Flow rate (litres/min)

Dose of Pyceze (ml) = Incubator + pipework + administration* volumes (litres)

10

* Administration Volume = the volume of water Pyceze is diluted in for administration into the incubator.

 

1.    Using the 100ml measuring cylinder (provided with the 1 litre pack) add the required amount of Pyceze to a bucket of water containing a suitable volume. This water, which is used to dilute Pyceze, comprises the Administration Volume.

2.    Mix the bucket contents thoroughly and add to the Administration Vessel (e.g. a header tank).

3.    If the system does not usually function as a re-circulation unit, couple the re-circulation up and start running ensuring the same flow rate of water as before re-circulation. During the treatment period there should be no water leaving the treatment system.

4.    Turn on the tap of the Administration Vessel (e.g. header tank) allowing the Administration Volume to be added to the incubator over the calculated Administration Time. It is good practice to try this with no product present to ensure that the Administration Volume is added over the correct time.

5.  Once the product has been fully added to the re-circulating water the unit should be allowed to re-circulate for a further 30 minutes (Treatment Time). Afterwards resume the normal circulation of un-medicated water.

DOSE EXAMPLES

 

 

Volume

(litres)

 

 

 

 

Treatment regime

Incubator Vessel type

Incubator

Pipework/
re-circ. Unit

Admin. Volume

Flow rate (Inflow) (litres/minute)

Admin. Time (minutes)

Pyceze dose (ml)

 

Small incubator

10 litres x rack of 20

90

10

1.5 litres x 20

9.7

30

Re-circulation

Large incubator

80

90

10

16

10.6

18

 

Egg trough

200 litres x 2 in series

90

10

25

19.6

50

 

2. Continuous Addition:  (Dose = 1ml per 10 litres water = 50mg Bronopol/litre)

Pyceze is added to the system over the time it takes for the water already in the system to achieve the correct dose level. Addition of the medicated water is then continued for the Treatment Time of 30 minutes.

 

Administration Time (mins) =   Incubator and pipework volume (litres)   + 30

Flow rate (litres/min)

Dose of Pyceze (ml) = [ flow rate (litres/min) x Administration Time (mins) ] + Administration Volume (litres) *

10

* Administration Volume = the volume of water Pyceze is diluted in for administration into the inflow of incubator.

 

1.    Using the 100ml measuring cylinder (provided with the 1 litre pack) add the required amount of Pyceze to a bucket of water containing a suitable volume. This water, which is used to dilute Pyceze, comprises the Administration Volume.

2.    Mix the bucket contents thoroughly and add to the Administration Vessel (e.g. a header tank).

3.    Turn on the tap of the Administration Vessel (e.g. header tank) allowing the Administration Volume of water to be added to the incubator over the calculated Administration Time leaving the inflow water flow rate unchanged. It is good practice to try this with no Pyceze present to ensure the product (Administration Volume) is added over the correct time.

4.    The flow rate to the incubator needs to be such that a complete exchange of the incubator water is achieved in 30 minutes following the end of the treatment period.

 

DOSE EXAMPLES

 

 

Volume

(litres)

 

 

 

 

Treatment regime

Incubator Vessel type

Incubator

Pipework

Admin. Volume

Flow rate (Inflow) (litres/minute)

Admin. Time (minutes)

Pyceze dose (ml)

 

Small incubator

10 litres x rack of 10

20

10

1.5 litres x 20

38.0

58

Continuous

Large incubator

70

0

10

16

34.4

56

addition

Egg trough

100 litres x 2 in series

10

10

12

47.5

58

 

 

   

(Left) Pyceze treated vs. untreated incubating salmonid eggs in troughs.

(Right) Moribund rainbow trout suffering from fungal infection (Saprolegnia sp.).

 

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TREATMENT OF FISH

 

Dose of Pyceze for the treatment of fish:

Treat once daily at 20mg bronopol/litre water (1ml Pyceze per 25 litres water) for up to 14 consecutive days. (Graduated 500mI and 100ml measuring devices are available.)

Treatment duration is 30 minutes.

Dose of Pyceze (ml) = Volume of water for treatment (litres)

25

Pyceze treatment of fish is by conventional bath treatment (principles):

·       Where fish are in tanks, raceways or earth ponds the water supply should be turned off. The treatment unit volume may be reduced to limit the amount of product used. Care should be taken when doing this not to unduly stress the fish by lack of space or oxygen availability.

·       For treatment of cages the net should be raised to a depth of 1m to 2m depending on the biomass of the fish and a tarpaulin should be used to completely enclose the fish in a known volume of water. It is important to accurately determine the volume of water to be medicated. Once the 30 minute treatment time is completed the tarpaulin should be removed and the nets lowered to the original depth.

·       In all cases it is recommended that oxygen be diffused into the treatment unit throughout the treatment period to maintain a minimum oxygen level of 7mg/L and to ensure adequate mixing of the product.

·       Movement of fish and oxygen diffusion during treatment ensures mixing of the product throughout the treatment unit water.

·       Flow rates to the treatment unit must be such that a complete exchange of water is achieved in 60 minutes or less following the end of the treatment period.

Procedure:

1.     Using the 500mI measuring jug (provided with the 5 Litre pack) add the required volume of Pyceze to a bucket containing a suitable volume of water (e.g. 5, 10 or 20 litres) from the treatment bath.

2.     Mix the bucket contents thoroughly and after stopping the water flow add to the treatment bath at several positions, spreading the treatment around the bath as much as possible to aid mixing.

3.     After use, rinse the measure and bucket used to mix the Pyceze carefully and add the rinsing to the treatment bath to ensure all product is used.

4.     Once all the product is added, check the time and keep the fish in the treatment bath for 30 minutes.

5.     If fish become stressed or agitated abandon treatment, turn on the water supply and contact your Veterinary Surgeon.

6.     At the end of the treatment period, the water flow should be turned back on and the tank/raceway/pond allowed to fill and treatment flushed out. Only then should the additional oxygen supply be removed. For cages, remove the tarpaulin.

7.     Consecutive daily treatments for up to 14 days are recommended. It may be appropriate to reduce the frequency of treatment where challenge is less severe, depending on advice from the prescribing Veterinary Surgeon.

DOSE EXAMPLES

Rearing system

Treatment bath dimensions

Treatment volume

Dose of Pyceze

Tank                             e.g. 1

2m diameter x 1m depth

3,142 litres

126 mls

e.g. 2

5m diameter x 2m depth

39,270 litres

1.57 litres

Raceway/pond    e.g. 1

5m long x 2m wide x 1m depth

10m3 110,000 litres)

400 mls

e.g. 2

10m long x 5m wide x 1.5m depth

75m3 (75,000 litres)

3.0 litres

Cage                  e.g. 1

5m x 5m x 1m

25m3 (25,000 litres)

1.0 litre

(square)            e.g. 2

12m x 12m x 1m

144m3 (144,000 litres)

5.76 litres

 

Contra-indications, warnings: Do not use simultaneously with other bath treatments. Do not use in smolting Atlantic salmon as it may be harmful at this phase.

Withdrawal period: Not to be used in salmonid eggs for human consumption. There is zero withdrawal period for food fish.

Pharmaceutical precautions:  Store in the original container. For animal treatment only. Use under veterinary direction. Keep out of reach of children.

Operator Warnings: Irritating to eyes, lungs and skin. Wear protective clothing, impervious gloves (0.3mm nitrile rubber) and use face half-mask together with suitable eye protection. After contact with the skin, wash immediately and in case of contact with the eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice. Do not smoke, eat or drink while using the product and wash hands carefully after use. Undiluted product in direct contact may damage the surface of plastic troughs or tanks.

Environmental Warnings: In its concentrated form, the product could be harmful to other aquatic life. Prevent any unnecessary release of the product into the environment. Do not contaminate surface waters or ditches with product, used containers, or the rinsing and do not reuse the container for any purpose. Unused product or waste material should be disposed of in accordance with current practice for pharmaceutical waste under national waste disposal regulations.

 

Packaging:  High density polyethylene bottles containing 1litre of product.

Storage: Do not store above 25ºC, protect from light. Store in the original container and keep the container tightly closed after use.

Legal category:  Prescription only medicine (POM).

 

 

 

 

 

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Disclaimer:

Every effort has been made to ensure that the information in the notes and papers contained and linked herein is accurate until the date of last editing. It is based upon the accumulated personal experience of applied work in the field. The author cannot take responsibility for incorrect interpretation and any resulting consequences.

The contents may be used only as an educational guide and are not meant to become a stand-alone diagnostic tool or treatment manual or replace professional assistance.

 

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